Enzymes are very efficient and specific catalyst proteins which react with 1 or few types of substrates in biochemical reactions and are responsible for bringing about almost all of the chemical reactions in living organisms. Enzymes speed up reactions by providing an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy. Without enzymes, reactions take place at a rate far too slow for the pace of metabolism which means that they speed up the chemical reactions in living things.
There are 2 types of enzymes, ones that help join specific molecules together to form new molecules & others that help break specific molecules apart into separate molecules. Enzymes play many important roles ouside the cell as well. One of the best examples of this is the digestive system. For instance, it is enzymes in your digestive system that break food down in your digestive system break food down into small molecules that can be absorbed by the body. Some enzymes in your digestive system break down starch, some proteins and others break down fats. The enzymes used to digest our food are extra-cellular since they are located outside our cells & enzymes inside our cells are intra-cellular enzymes. Enzymes are used in ALL chemical reactions in living things; this includes respiration, photosynthesis, movement growth, getting rid of toxic chemicals in the liver and so on. Enzymes are proteins that must have the correct structure to be active. They are very easily affected by heat, pH and heavy metal ions.
Ribonucleoprotein enzyme catalytic activity is located in the protein part but for some the catalytic activity is in the RNA part. A catalyst is any substance which makes a chemical reaction go faster, without itself being changed. A catalyst can be used over and over again in a chemical reaction and does not get used up.
Enzymes lower the amount of activation energy needed by binding to the reactants of the reaction they catalyze, thus speed up the reaction and can process millions of molecules per second. Enzymes are typically large proteins with high molecular weight that permit reactions to go at conditions that the body can tolerate.
Enzyme nomenclature is based on what the enzyme reacts with & how it reacts along with the ending ase.
Enzymes must get over the activation energy hurdle.
Enzymes change how a reaction will proceed which reduces the activation energy and makes it faster. The more we increase the enzyme concentration the faster the reaction rate for non-catalyzed reactions. Enzymes that are catalyzed reactions also increase reaction rate at higher level of concentration but up to a certain point called Vmax which means that the enzyme has reached its maximum point. The reaction is limited by both the concentrations of the enzyme and substrate. Enzymes as catalysts take part in reactions which provide an alternative reaction pathway. Enzymes do not undergo permanent changes and remain unchanged at the end of the reaction. They only change the rate of reaction, not the position of the equilibrium.Enzymes as catalysts are highly selective by only catalysing specific reactions due to the shapes of the enzyme’s molecule.
Enzymes contain a globular protein part called apoenzyme and a non-protein part named cofactor or prosthetic group or metal-ion-activator. Changes in temperature and pH have great influence on the intra- and intermolecular bonds that hold the protein part in their secondary and tertiary structures.
Examples of cofactors are 1. Prosthetic group that are permanently bound to the enzyme. 2. Activator group which are cations (positively charged metal ions) & temporarily bind to the active site of the enzyme. 3.Coenzymes, usually vitamins or made from vitamins which are not permanently bound to the enzyme molecule, but combine with the enzyme-substrate complex temporarily. Enzymes require the presence cofactors before their catalytic activity can be exerted. This entire active complex is referred to as the holoenzyme.
Without enzymes, our guts would take weeks to digest our food, our muscles, nerves and bones would not work properly and so on…
Main Enzyme category groups:
All enzymes that catalyse oxido-reductions belong in this class. The substrate oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen or electron donor. The classification is based on 'donor:acceptor oxidoreductase'. The common name is 'dehydrogenase', wherever this is possible; as an alternative, 'acceptor reductase' can be used. 'Oxidase' is used only where O2 is an acceptor. Classification is difficult in some cases, because of the lack of specificity towards the acceptor.
Transferases are enzymes that transfer a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme 'donor:acceptor grouptransferase'. The common names are normally formed as 'acceptor grouptransferase' or 'donor grouptransferase'. In many cases, the donor is a cofactor (coenzyme) that carries the group to be transferred. The aminotransferases constitute a special case.
These enzymes catalyse the hydrolysis of various bonds. Some of these enzymes pose problems because they have a very wide specificity, and it is not easy to decide if two preparations described by different authors are the same, or if they should be listed under different entries. While the systematic name always includes 'hydrolase', the common name is, in most cases, formed by the name of the substrate with the suffix -ase. It is understood that the name of the substrate with this suffix, and no other indicator, means a hydrolytic enzyme. It should be noted that peptidases have recommended names rather than common names.
Lyases are enzymes that cleave C-C, C-O, C-N and other bonds by means other than by hydrolysis or oxidation. They differ from other enzymes in that two (or more) substrates are involved in one reaction direction, but there is one compound fewer in the other direction. When acting on the single substrate, a molecule is eliminated and this generates either a new double bond or a new ring. The systematic name is formed according to 'substrate group-lyase'. In common names, expressions like decarboxylase, aldolase, etc. are used. 'Dehydratase' is used for those enzymes that eliminate water. In cases where the reverse reaction is the more important, or the only one to be demonstrated, 'synthase' may be used in the name.
Ligases are enzymes that catalyse the joining of two molecules with concomitant hydrolysis of the diphosphate bond in ATP or a similar triphosphate. 'Ligase' is often used for the common name, but, in a few cases, 'synthase' or 'carboxylase' is used. 'Synthetase' may be used in place of 'synthase' for enzymes in this class.
Products for Enzymes
- Activating Transcription Factor(3)
- Adenylate Kinase(10)
- Aurora Kinase(10)
- Beta Lactamase(3)
- Calcium and Integrin Binding(2)
- Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase(4)
- Carbonic Anhydrase(38)
- Casein Kinase(27)
- Creatin Kinases(9)
- Cyclin-Dependent Kinase(18)
- Discoidin Domain Receptor Tyrosine Kinase(2)
- DNA Polymerase(4)
- EGF Receptor(3)
- FGF Receptors(12)
- FK506 Binding Protein(10)
- Fructosamine 3 Kinase(2)
- Glycogen synthase kinase(2)
- Guanylate Kinase(2)
- Histone Deacetylase(3)
- Jun N-terminal Kinase(1)
- Jun Proto-Oncogene(2)
- Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase(16)
- Natural Enzymes(4)
- Nudix Type Motif(11)
- Other Enzymes(63)
- Protein Kinase Akt1/PKB alpha(4)
- Protein Kinase-A(7)
- Protein Kinase-C(3)
- Protein Kinases(86)
- Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase(10)
- Secreted Phospholipase A2(10)
- Serine Threonine Kinase(4)
- Tyrosine Kinase(9)
- Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme(39)
- VEGF Receptors(14)
- Cat.No. 产品名称 Information
- GP26348 SUMF1 Human, Sf9 SUMF1 produced in Sf9 Insect cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 347 amino acids (34-374
- GP26200 TYRO3 Mouse TYRO3 Mouse produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 628 amino acids (31-419 aa) and having a molecular mass of 68
- GP26199 NTRK1 Rat NTRK1 Rat Recombinant produced in HEK is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 623 amino acids (35-418 a
- GP26198 TIE1 Human TIE1 Human Recombinant produced in HEK293 Cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 977 amino acids (22-759 a
- GP26197 STK11 Human STK11 Human Recombinant produced in E
- GP26196 PTPN11 Human, Active PTPN11 Human produced in Sf9 Insect cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 602 amino acids ( 1-593 a
- GP26195 PRKCI Human PRKCI Human Recombinant produced in HEK cells is a single, glycosylated, polypeptide chain (1-596 a
- GP26194 PGK2 Human, Active PGK2 Human Recombinant produced in E
- GP26193 PGK1 Human, Active PGK1 Human Recombinant produced in E
- GP26192 MERTK Mouse MERTK Mouse produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 718 amino acids (19-497 aa) and having a molecular mass of 79
- GP26191 IDNK E.Coli, Active IDNK Recombinant produced in E
- GP26190 GLK E.Coli, Active GLK E
- GP26189 FTL1 Human, HEK FTL1 Human Recombinant is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 675 amino acids (27-687a
- GP26188 FGFR2 Human, (22-289) FGFR2 produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 507 amino acids (22-289a
- GP26187 ErbB4 Human ErbB4 Human Recombinant produced in HEK293 Cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 863 amino acids (26-649 a
- GP26184 AKT3 Human AKT3 Human Recombinant produced in HEK293 Cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 485 amino acids (1-479a
- GP26183 Welqut Protease, His Welqut Protease Recombinant is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 210 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 22kDa
- GP26182 Welqut Protease Welqut Protease Recombinant is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 204 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 22kDa
- GP26181 ST6GALNAC5 Human ST6GALNAC5 produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 316 amino acids (30-336a
- GP26180 SAE1/SAE2 Human SAE1/SAE2 Human Recombinant produced in SF9 is glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 2 subunits (SAE1 subunit molecular mass is 39kDa & SAE2 subunit molecular mass is 73kDa)
- GP26179 RNPA E.Coli RNPA E
- GP26178 RNASE2 Human RNASE2 Human produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 143 amino acids (28-161 a
- GP26177 RNASE1 Human RNASE1 Human Recombinant produced in HEK cells is a single, glycosylated, polypeptide chain (29-156 a
- GP26176 PTPRN Human Recombinant Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type N produced in SF9 is a glycosylated, polypeptide chain having a calculated molecular mass of 46kDa
- GP26175 PRCP Human PRCP Human Recombinant produced in HEK cells is a single, glycosylated, polypeptide chain (22-496 a
- GP26173 PON1 Human, HEK PON1 Human Recombinant produced in HEK cells is a single, glycosylated, polypeptide chain (16-355 a
- GP26172 PGD Human, Active PGD Human Recombinant produced in E
- GP26171 PAP Human Human Prostate Acid Phosphatase produced in Pooled human seminal fluid having a molecular mass of approximately 100kD
- GP26170 HYAL1 Human HYAL1 Human Recombinant produced in HEK cells is a single, glycosylated, polypeptide chain (22-435 a
- GP26169 NQO1 Human, Active NQO1 Human Recombinant produced in E
- GP26168 MMP9 Mouse MMP9 Mouse produced in Sf9 Insect cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 711 amino acids (20-730 a
- GP26167 MMP2 Mouse MMP2 Mouse produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 644 amino acids (30-662 aa) and having a molecular mass of 72
- GP26166 MME Human, Active MME Human produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 708 amino acids (52-750 aa) and having a molecular mass of 80
- GP26165 Lysozyme Human Recombinant Human Lysozyme produced in Plant is a non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 130 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 14kDa
- GP26164 LDHA, E.Coli Active LDHA E
- GP26163 KLK3 Human, Native Human Kallikrein-3 produced in Human seminal fluid having a molecular mass of approximately 30kD
- GP26162 KLK3 Human, HEK KLK3 Human Recombinant produced in HEK cells is a single, glycosylated, polypeptide chain (18-261 a
- GP26161 KLK3 Protein Kallikrein-3 Human Recombinant produced in E
- GP26160 KEL Mouse KEL Mouse produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 674 amino acids (49-713 aa) and having a molecular mass of 76
- GP26159 HAO1 Mouse HAO1 Mouse Recombinant produced in E
- GP26158 GZMB Mouse GZMB Mouse produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 235 amino acids (19-247 aa) and having a molecular mass of 26
- GP26157 GST S. Japonicum GST S
- GP26156 GST S. Japonicum, His GST S
- GP26155 GPT2 Mouse, Active GPT2 Mouse Recombinant produced in E
- GP26154 GPI Human, Active GPIHuman Recombinant produced in E
- GP26153 GOT2 Mouse, Active GOT2 Mouse Recombinant produced in E
- GP26152 GLB1 Human GLB1 Human produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 662 amino acids (24-677 a
- GP26151 FOLH1 Human FOLH1 produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 717 amino acids (44-750 a
- GP26150 FBP1 Human, Active FBP1 Recombinant produced in E
- GP26149 FAP Human FAP Human produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 744 amino acids (26-760aa) and having a molecular mass of 86