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Enzymes are very efficient and specific catalyst proteins which react with 1 or few types of substrates in biochemical reactions and are responsible for bringing about almost all of the chemical reactions in living organisms. Enzymes speed up reactions by providing an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy. Without enzymes, reactions take place at a rate far too slow for the pace of metabolism which means that they speed up the chemical reactions in living things.

There are 2 types of enzymes, ones that help join specific molecules together to form new molecules & others that help break specific molecules apart into separate molecules. Enzymes play many important roles ouside the cell as well. One of the best examples of this is the digestive system. For instance, it is enzymes in your digestive system that break food down in your digestive system break food down into small molecules that can be absorbed by the body. Some enzymes in your digestive system break down starch, some proteins and others break down fats. The enzymes used to digest our food are extra-cellular since they are located outside our cells & enzymes inside our cells are intra-cellular enzymes. Enzymes are used in ALL chemical reactions in living things; this includes respiration, photosynthesis, movement growth, getting rid of toxic chemicals in the liver and so on. Enzymes are proteins that must have the correct structure to be active. They are very easily affected by heat, pH and heavy metal ions.

Ribonucleoprotein enzyme catalytic activity is located in the protein part but for some the catalytic activity is in the RNA part. A catalyst is any substance which makes a chemical reaction go faster, without itself being changed. A catalyst can be used over and over again in a chemical reaction and does not get used up.

Enzymes lower the amount of activation energy needed by binding to the reactants of the reaction they catalyze, thus speed up the reaction and can process millions of molecules per second. Enzymes are typically large proteins with high molecular weight that permit reactions to go at conditions that the body can tolerate.

Enzyme nomenclature is based on what the enzyme reacts with & how it reacts along with the ending ase.

Enzymes must get over the activation energy hurdle.

Enzymes change how a reaction will proceed which reduces the activation energy and makes it faster. The more we increase the enzyme concentration the faster the reaction rate for non-catalyzed reactions. Enzymes that are catalyzed reactions also increase reaction rate at higher level of concentration but up to a certain point called Vmax which means that the enzyme has reached its maximum point. The reaction is limited by both the concentrations of the enzyme and substrate. Enzymes as catalysts take part in reactions which provide an alternative reaction pathway. Enzymes do not undergo permanent changes and remain unchanged at the end of the reaction. They only change the rate of reaction, not the position of the equilibrium.Enzymes as catalysts are highly selective by only catalysing specific reactions due to the shapes of the enzyme’s molecule.

Enzymes contain a globular protein part called apoenzyme and a non-protein part named cofactor or prosthetic group or metal-ion-activator. Changes in temperature and pH have great influence on the intra- and intermolecular bonds that hold the protein part in their secondary and tertiary structures.

Examples of cofactors are 1. Prosthetic group that are permanently bound to the enzyme. 2. Activator group which are cations (positively charged metal ions) & temporarily bind to the active site of the enzyme. 3.Coenzymes, usually vitamins or made from vitamins which are not permanently bound to the enzyme molecule, but combine with the enzyme-substrate complex temporarily. Enzymes require the presence cofactors before their catalytic activity can be exerted. This entire active complex is referred to as the holoenzyme.

Without enzymes, our guts would take weeks to digest our food, our muscles, nerves and bones would not work properly and so on…

Main Enzyme category groups:

All enzymes that catalyse oxido-reductions belong in this class. The substrate oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen or electron donor. The classification is based on 'donor:acceptor oxidoreductase'. The common name is 'dehydrogenase', wherever this is possible; as an alternative, 'acceptor reductase' can be used. 'Oxidase' is used only where O2 is an acceptor. Classification is difficult in some cases, because of the lack of specificity towards the acceptor.

Transferases are enzymes that transfer a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme 'donor:acceptor grouptransferase'. The common names are normally formed as 'acceptor grouptransferase' or 'donor grouptransferase'. In many cases, the donor is a cofactor (coenzyme) that carries the group to be transferred. The aminotransferases constitute a special case.

These enzymes catalyse the hydrolysis of various bonds. Some of these enzymes pose problems because they have a very wide specificity, and it is not easy to decide if two preparations described by different authors are the same, or if they should be listed under different entries. While the systematic name always includes 'hydrolase', the common name is, in most cases, formed by the name of the substrate with the suffix -ase. It is understood that the name of the substrate with this suffix, and no other indicator, means a hydrolytic enzyme. It should be noted that peptidases have recommended names rather than common names.

Lyases are enzymes that cleave C-C, C-O, C-N and other bonds by means other than by hydrolysis or oxidation. They differ from other enzymes in that two (or more) substrates are involved in one reaction direction, but there is one compound fewer in the other direction. When acting on the single substrate, a molecule is eliminated and this generates either a new double bond or a new ring. The systematic name is formed according to 'substrate group-lyase'. In common names, expressions like decarboxylase, aldolase, etc. are used. 'Dehydratase' is used for those enzymes that eliminate water. In cases where the reverse reaction is the more important, or the only one to be demonstrated, 'synthase' may be used in the name.

Ligases are enzymes that catalyse the joining of two molecules with concomitant hydrolysis of the diphosphate bond in ATP or a similar triphosphate. 'Ligase' is often used for the common name, but, in a few cases, 'synthase' or 'carboxylase' is used. 'Synthetase' may be used in place of 'synthase' for enzymes in this class.

Products for  Enzymes

  1. Cat.No. 产品名称 Information
  2. GC91296 p-Carboxyphenyl Sulfate


  3. GC70181 α-Glucosidase-IN-22 α-Glucosidase-IN-22 (compound 7i) 是一种苯并咪唑,一种有效的 α-葡萄糖苷酶 (α-glucosidase) 抑制剂,IC50 为 0.64 μM。α-Glucosidase-IN-22 是一种有效的抗糖尿病活性分子,具有用于 2 型糖尿病 (T2DM) 研究的潜力。
  4. GC70095 Uralenol Uralenol 是来自 Broussonetia papyrifera 的天然 PTP1B 抑制剂 (IC50=21. 5 μM)。 在许多细胞和生化研究中,PTP1B 已显示在胰岛素受体的去磷酸化中起主要作用。
  5. GC70030 Tinengotinib Tinengotinib 是一种或多种蛋白激酶的调节剂,例如 Aurora 激酶和 VEGFR 激酶。Tinengotinib 具有研究这些激酶异常介导的疾病的潜力,尤其是癌症相关疾病 (摘自专利 WO2018108079A1)。
  6. GC69932 SPAA-52 SPAA-52 是一种具有口服活性的、竞争性的和可逆的低分子量蛋白酪氨酸磷酸酶 (LMW-PTP) 抑制剂 (IC50=4 nM, Ki=1.2 nM)。SPAA-52 可用于糖尿病的研究。
  7. GC69824 RO5461111 RO5461111 是一种高特异性、口服有效的 Cathepsin S 拮抗剂 (IC50: 0.4 nM, human Cathepsin S; 0.5 nM, murine Cathepsin S)。RO5461111 能够有效抑制抗原特异性 T 细胞和 B 细胞活化。RO5461111 对肺部炎症和狼疮性肾炎有改善作用。
  8. GC69736 PRL-3 Inhibitor 2 PRL-3 Inhibitor 2 (compound 2) 是一种有效的 PRL-3 抑制剂,IC50 值为 28.1 µM。
  9. GC69651 p-Aminophenylmercuric acetate

    p-Aminophenylmercuric acetate 是一种有机汞基质金属蛋白酶 (MMP) 激活剂。p-Aminophenylmercuric acetate 通过攻击蛋白质巯基或诱导半胱氨酸转换反应,参与 MMP-8 的激活和抑制。p-Aminophenylmercuric acetate 促进了 β 纤维素素前体 (pro-BTC) 脱落。p-Aminophenylmercuric acetate 影响阿片类受体与其激动剂和拮抗剂的结合。

  10. GC69633 Orobol Orobol 是一种主要的大豆异黄酮,具有多种药理活性,包括抗皮肤老化和抗肥胖作用。Orobol 抑制 CK1ε、VEGFR2、MAP4K5、MNK1、MUSK、TOPK 和 TNIK (IC50=1.24-4.45 μM)。Orobol 还抑制 PI3K 亚型 (对于 PI3K α/β/γ/K/δ,IC50=3.46-5.27μM)。
  11. GC69554 NFF-3 TFA NFF-3 TFA 肽是一种选择性 MMP 底物。NFF-3 TFA 选择性结合 MMP-3 和 MMP-10 而被水解。NFF-3 TFA 也被胰蛋白酶、肝细胞生长因子激活剂和因子 Xa 裂解。使用 CyDye Cy3/Cy5Q 标记 NFF-3 TFA,可在细胞实验中产生荧光,而检测细胞活性。
  12. GC69551 N-Ethylmaleimide-d5 N-Ethylmaleimide-d5 是 N-Ethylmaleimide 的氘代物。N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM),烷基化自由巯基的试剂, 是一种半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂。N-Ethylmaleimide 特异性抑制线粒体中的磷酸盐转运。N-Ethylmaleimide 同样也是一种去泛素化酶 (deubiquitinating enzyme) 抑制剂。
  13. GC69515 MY33-3 MY33-3 是一种有效和选择性的蛋白酪氨酸磷酸酶 RPTPβ/ζ 抑制剂,IC50 值为 ~0.1 μM。MY33-3 还抑制 PTP-1B (IC50 ~0.7 μM)。MY33-3 可以减少乙醇消耗并缓解 Sevoflurane 引起的神经炎症和认知功能障碍。
  14. GC69480 MMP-7-IN-1 MMP-7-IN-1 是一种有效的、选择性 MMP-7 抑制剂 (IC50=10 nM),而对 MMP-1, -2, -3, -8, -9, -13 的 IC50>11 mM。MMP-7 是癌症和纤维化等疾病的潜在靶点。
  15. GC69479 MMP2-IN-1 MMP2-IN-1 是一种中度有效的 MMP2 抑制剂,IC50 为 6.8 µM。MMP2-IN-1 通过阻滞细胞周期和诱导细胞凋亡 (apoptosis),在某些癌细胞中表现出显著的抗增殖活性。
  16. GC69323 JUN-1111 JUN-1111 是一种不可逆的选择性 Cdc25 磷酸酶 抑制剂,对 Cdc25A、Cdc25B、Cdc25C、VHR、PTP1B的 IC50 值分别为 0.38、1.8、0.66、28、37 µM。 JUN-1111 诱导细胞周期停滞在 G1 和 G2/M 期。JUN-1111 降低 phosphoCdk1 的表达。
  17. GC69315 JMS-053 JMS-053 是一种有效,选择性和可逆的 PTP4A 抑制剂,抑制 PTP4A1,PTP4A2,PTP4A3,CDC25B 和 DUSP3 的 IC50 值分别为 29.1 nM,48.0 nM,34.7 nM,92.6 nM 和 207.6 nM。JMS-053 可以抑制癌细胞迁移和球状体生长,减弱体内卵巢肿瘤的生长。
  18. GC69231 HKB99 HKB99 是磷酸甘油酸突变酶 1 的变构抑制剂 (PGAM1)。HKB99 抑制侵袭性伪足的形成,提高 PAI-2 水平。HKB99 增加氧化应激,激活 JNK/c-Jun,抑制 AKT 和 ERK。HKB99 可用于非小细胞肺癌 (NSCLC) 的研究。
  19. GC69209 hCAII-IN-8 hCAII-IN-8 是一种酰胺,是一种高选择性碳酸酐酶 (CA) 抑制剂,对 hCA II 的 IC50 值为 0.18 μM。
  20. GC69155 Gcase activator 2 Gcase activator 2 (compound 14) 是一种吡咯 [2,3-b] 吡嗪,也是一种 β-葡萄糖脑苷酶 ( Gcase ) 激活剂(EC50=3.8 μM)。Gcase activator 2 诱导 Gcase 二聚化 (包括 k 型和 v 型)。Gcase activator 2 在人和小鼠中具有较低的代谢清除率。
  21. GC69090 EWP 815 EWP 815 是一种二硫类似物,是 Ins(1,4)P2 磷酸酶和 Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-磷酸酶的有效抑制剂。EWP 815 也参与抑制体内多巴胺酶 β-羟化酶活性。
  22. GC69068 ENMD-2076 Tartrate ENMD-2076 Tartrate 是多靶点激酶抑制剂,抑制 Aurora A,Flt3,KDR/VEGFR2,Flt4/VEGFR3,FGFR1,FGFR2,Src,PDGFRα 的IC50 值分别为1.86,14,58.2,15.9,92.7,70.8,20.2 and 56.4 nM。
  23. GC68925 cyclo(RLsKDK) TFA cyclo(RLsKDK) (TFA) (BK-1361 (TFA)) 是一种特异性的金属蛋白酶 ADAM8 抑制剂,IC50 值为 182 nM。cyclo(RLsKDK) (TFA) 在炎性疾病和癌症中有潜在应用。
  24. GC68836 Cathepsin X-IN-1 Cathepsin X-IN-1 (compound 25) 是一种有效的 组织蛋白酶 X 抑制剂,IC50 为 7.13 µM。Cathepsin X-IN-1 降低 PC-3 细胞迁移且具有低细胞毒性。
  25. GC68830 Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor 2 Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor 2 (compound 7c) 是一种碳酸酐酶 II (carbonic anhydrase II) 抑制剂,可降低青光眼兔的眼压。
  26. GC68656 Andecaliximab Andecaliximab 是一种靶向基质金属蛋白酶 9 (MMP9) 的重组 IgG4 单克隆抗体。Andecaliximab 在特发性肺纤维化小鼠模型中显示出抗纤维化疗效。Andecaliximab 可用于胃腺癌和特发性肺纤维化 (IPF) 的研究。
  27. GC68620 Ac-VLPE-FMK Ac-VLPE-FMK 是一种四肽基单氟甲基酮 (m-FMK),是一种 Cat-B 和 Cat-L 抑制剂。Ac-VLPE-FMK 可用于癌症侵袭性研究。
  28. GC68525 (2α,3β,4α)-2,3,19-Trihydroxyurs-12-ene-23,28-dioic acid (2α,3β,4α)-2,3,19-Trihydroxyurs-12-ene-23,28-dioic acid 是一种可从 Rubus ellipticus var. obcordatus 中分离得到的皂苷。(2α,3β,4α)-2,3,19-Trihydroxyurs-12-ene-23,28-dioic acid 抑制 α-Glucosidase,其 IC50 为 1.68 mM。
  29. GC68503 20S Proteasome activator 1 20S Proteasome activator 1 是一种有效的 20S 蛋白酶激活剂,对胰蛋白酶样位点、胰凝乳蛋白酶样位点和半胱天冬酶位点的 IC50 分别为 0.3 μM、0.7 μM 和 1.8 μM。20S Proteasome activator 1 能在细胞系统中翻译,防止致病性 α-synuclein A53T 突变体积累。20S Proteasome activator 1 可用于神经退行性疾病的研究。
  30. GP26348 SUMF1 Human, Sf9 SUMF1 produced in Sf9 Insect cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 347 amino acids (34-374
  31. GP26200 TYRO3 Mouse TYRO3 Mouse produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 628 amino acids (31-419 aa) and having a molecular mass of 68
  32. GP26199 NTRK1 Rat NTRK1 Rat Recombinant produced in HEK is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 623 amino acids (35-418 a
  33. GP26198 TIE1 Human TIE1 Human Recombinant produced in HEK293 Cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 977 amino acids (22-759 a
  34. GP26197 STK11 Human STK11 Human Recombinant produced in E
  35. GP26196 PTPN11 Human, Active PTPN11 Human produced in Sf9 Insect cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 602 amino acids ( 1-593 a
  36. GP26195 PRKCI Human PRKCI Human Recombinant produced in HEK cells is a single, glycosylated, polypeptide chain (1-596 a
  37. GP26194 PGK2 Human, Active PGK2 Human Recombinant produced in E
  38. GP26193 PGK1 Human, Active PGK1 Human Recombinant produced in E
  39. GP26192 MERTK Mouse MERTK Mouse produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 718 amino acids (19-497 aa) and having a molecular mass of 79
  40. GP26191 IDNK E.Coli, Active IDNK Recombinant produced in E
  41. GP26190 GLK E.Coli, Active GLK E
  42. GP26189 FTL1 Human, HEK FTL1 Human Recombinant is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 675 amino acids (27-687a
  43. GP26188 FGFR2 Human, (22-289) FGFR2 produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 507 amino acids (22-289a
  44. GP26187 ErbB4 Human ErbB4 Human Recombinant produced in HEK293 Cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 863 amino acids (26-649 a
  45. GP26184 AKT3 Human AKT3 Human Recombinant produced in HEK293 Cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 485 amino acids (1-479a
  46. GP26183 Welqut Protease, His Welqut Protease Recombinant is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 210 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 22kDa
  47. GP26182 Welqut Protease Welqut Protease Recombinant is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 204 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 22kDa
  48. GP26181 ST6GALNAC5 Human ST6GALNAC5 produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 316 amino acids (30-336a
  49. GP26180 SAE1/SAE2 Human SAE1/SAE2 Human Recombinant produced in SF9 is glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 2 subunits (SAE1 subunit molecular mass is 39kDa & SAE2 subunit molecular mass is 73kDa)
  50. GP26179 RNPA E.Coli RNPA E
  51. GP26178 RNASE2 Human RNASE2 Human produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 143 amino acids (28-161 a

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