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SU5416 Sale

(Synonyms: 司马沙尼; SU5416; Semaxanib ) 目录号 : GC15307

A tyrosine kinase inhibitor

SU5416 Chemical Structure

Cas No.:204005-46-9,194413-58-6

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10mM (in 1mL DMSO)

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Cell experiment [1]:

Cell lines

Human microvascular endothelial cells of the lung-blood (HMVEC-LBl)

Preparation Method

Cells were plated into 24-well plates and grown to confluence in EGM-2MV medium containing 2.5% FBS plus supplements. Only cells in passage 5 were used, with n = 12 wells per experimental condition.

Reaction Conditions

HMVEC-LBl was exposed to human VEGF-121 (40 ng/mL) in-vitro in serum-free medium for 7 h, in the absence or presence of the VEGF receptor antagonist, SU5416 (3 and 10 μM).


SU5416 can block the effects of VEGF and completely prevent VEGFR2 phosphorylation as well. There was no evidence of background VEGFR2 phosphorylation in the HMVEC-LBl and in serum-free medium. Adding SU5416 did not affect the background phosphorylation. In the absence of VEGF, SU5416 increased ET-1 production, by 16% at 10 μM, and SU5416 can completely abolish the VEGF effect on ET-1 production.

Animal experiment [2]:

Animal models

Wild-type C57BL/6 mice (male, 8–10 weeks, 20–24 g) and genetically engineered TLR4-deficient mice (male, 8–10 weeks, 20–22 g)

Preparation Method

Mice were stimulated by intratracheal administration of LPS after anesthetization with an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of tribromoethanol. Isopyknic saline-treated mice served as blank control group. After LPS stimulation, the experimental mice were treated with SU5416, DXM or DXM + SU5416 by oral administration for 12 hours. DXM-treated mice were served as positive control group.

Dosage form

20 mg/kg, BW solution in DMSO


SU5416 could be implemented to suppress immune response in mice with ALI. Normally, excessive activation and penetration of neutrophils is the common pathological process in LPS-induced ALI. Which subsequently enhanced the release of proinflammatory cytokines, which can further aggravate lung injury. SU5416 exhibited inhibitory effect on the population of neutrophil cell (P


[1]. Star GP, et al. Effects of vascular endothelial growth factor on endothelin-1 production by human lung microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. Life Sci. 2014 Nov 24;118(2):191-4.

[2]. Huang X, et al. SU5416 attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by modulating properties of vascular endothelial cells. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2019 May 23;13:1763-1772.


SU5416 is a potent small molecule vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor. SU5416 is a 3-substituted indolin-2-one compound with relatively high specificity for VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-1, used extensively in animal models of PH, primarily due to effects on pulmonary vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and proliferation.[1] SU416 has been developed for the treatment of solid human tumors as well. [3]

In vitro study was performed to examine the inhibitory effect of SU5416 on KDR phosphorylation. Which indicated that pretreatment of BCECs with SU5416 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of KDR phosphorylation with an IC50 of 0.29 ± 0.071 μM (n=6) SU5416 almost completely inhibited KDR phosphorylation at the concentration of 3 μM. Few BCECs were stained with trypan blue after the treatment of SU5416, at least up to the concentration of 3 μM for 24 h. This suggested that the inhibitory effect of SU5416 on KDR phosphorylation was not due to the cell toxicity.[2]

In vivo study demonstrated that SU5416 could significantly reverse LPS-induced ALI in mice, and exert better protective effect in TLR4 knockout mice. SU5416 could also act as a protective agent against LPS-induced ALI in mice. Moreover, SU5416 dramatically restored the reduction of CD31 expression mediated by LPS, suggesting SU5416 could rescue LPS-induced dysfunction of pulmonary endothelial barrier. In addition, both p-VEGFR2 and VEGFR2 expressions were inhibited by SU5416 in WT and TLR4?/- mice. SU5416 could attenuate LPS-induced ALI through modulating the VEGF/VEGFR and NF-κB pathways, which suggested SU5416 might be used for the treatment of patients with inflammation-mediated ALI.[3]

[1]. Peloquin GL, et al. SU5416 does not attenuate early RV angiogenesis in the murine chronic hypoxia PH model. Respir Res. 2019 Jun 17;20(1):123.
[2] Takeda A, et al. Suppression of experimental choroidal neovascularization utilizing KDR selective receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003 Sep;241(9):765-72.
[3]. Huang X, et al. SU5416 attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by modulating properties of vascular endothelial cells. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2019 May 23;13:1763-1772.

SU5416 是一种有效的小分子血管内皮生长因子受体 (VEGFR) 抑制剂。 SU5416 是一种 3-取代的二氢吲哚-2-酮化合物,对 VEGFR-2 和 VEGFR-1 具有相对较高的特异性,广泛用于 PH 动物模型,主要是由于对肺血管内皮细胞凋亡和增殖的影响。 [1] SU416 也已开发用于治疗实体人类肿瘤。 [3]

进行了体外研究以检查 SU5416 对 KDR 磷酸化的抑制作用。这表明用 SU5416 预处理 BCECs 导致 KDR 磷酸化的剂量依赖性抑制,IC50 为 0.29 ± 0.071 μM (n=6) SU5416 在 3 μM 的浓度下几乎完全抑制 KDR 磷酸化。在 SU5416 处理后,很少有 BCEC 被台盼蓝染色,至少达到 3 μM 的浓度 24 小时。这表明SU5416对KDR磷酸化的抑制作用不是由于细胞毒性。[2]

体内研究表明,SU5416 可显着逆转 LPS 诱导的小鼠 ALI,并对 TLR4 基因敲除小鼠发挥更好的保护作用。 SU5416 还可以作为 LPS 诱导的小鼠 ALI 的保护剂。此外,SU5416 显着恢复了 LPS 介导的 CD31 表达降低,表明 SU5416 可以挽救 LPS 诱导的肺内皮屏障功能障碍。此外,在 WT 和 TLR4-/- 小鼠中,p-VEGFR2 和 VEGFR2 表达均被 SU5416 抑制。 SU5416可通过调节VEGF/VEGFR和NF-κB通路减轻LPS诱导的ALI,提示SU5416可用于治疗炎症介导的ALI。[3]

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 204005-46-9,194413-58-6 SDF
别名 司马沙尼; SU5416; Semaxanib
化学名 (3Z)-3-[(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methylidene]-1H-indol-2-one
Canonical SMILES CC1=CC(=C(N1)C=C2C3=CC=CC=C3NC2=O)C
分子式 C15H14N2O 分子量 238.28
溶解度 ≥ 11.9 mg/mL in DMSO 储存条件 Desiccate at -20°C
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1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 4.1967 mL 20.9837 mL 41.9674 mL
5 mM 0.8393 mL 4.1967 mL 8.3935 mL
10 mM 0.4197 mL 2.0984 mL 4.1967 mL
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给药剂量 mg/kg 动物平均体重 g 每只动物给药体积 ul 动物数量
% DMSO % % Tween 80 % saline

Research Update

The effects of antiangiogenic compound SU5416 in a rat model of pulmonary arterial hypertension

Several lines of evidence indicate that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a prosurvival and antiapoptotic role in endothelial cells. SU5416 is the first VEGF receptor 2 inhibitor to enter clinical development for cancer therapy. A phase I/II study of SU5416 has been completed, and the results show that SU5416 is well tolerated in patients with terminal cancers. It has been shown that VEGF receptor blockade using SU5416 combined with chronic hypoxia results in severe angioproliferative pulmonary hypertension (PAH) with neointimal changes in adult rats. Although classic animal models of pulmonary hypertension (that is, the monocrotaline and hypoxic models) do not form obstructive intimal lesions in the peripheral pulmonary arteries, the SU5416 model has shown pulmonary arterial changes resembling plexiform lesions. Therefore, the SU5416 model of PAH has been used for some time, and it has thus contributed to a better understanding of the pulmonary hypertensive process. However, the mechanism by which SU5416 combined with chronic hypoxia can result in PAH with plexiform-like lesions in adult rats is complex and still remains to be fully elucidated. The most likely explanation is that there is increased apoptosis of endothelial cells in response to the loss of the survival signaling, creating conditions favoring the emergence of apoptosis-resistant cells with increased growth potential, that is, the endothelial cell hyperproliferation that might characterize the plexiform lesions of human PAH. The aim of the present review is to provide information useful for understanding a potent inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase, SU5416, and to better understand its use for generating animal models of PAH.

SU5416 plus hypoxia but not selective VEGFR2 inhibition with cabozantinib plus hypoxia induces pulmonary hypertension in rats: potential role of BMPR2 signaling

SU5416 plus chronic hypoxia causes pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats and is assumed to occur through VEGFR2 inhibition. Cabozantinib is a far more potent VEGFR2 inhibitor than SU5416. Therefore, we hypothesized that cabozantinib plus hypoxia would induce severe pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats. Cell proliferation and pharmacokinetic studies were performed. Rats were given SU5416 or cabozantinib subcutaneously or via osmotic pump and kept hypoxic for three weeks. Right ventricular systolic pressure and hypertrophy were evaluated at days 14 and 28 following removal from hypoxia. Right ventricular fibrosis was evaluated with Picro-Sirius Red staining. Kinome inhibition profiles of SU5416 and cabozantinib were performed. Inhibitor binding constants of SU5416 and cabozantinib for BMPR2 were determined and Nanostring analyses of lung mRNA were performed. Cabozantinib was a more potent VEGFR inhibitor than SU5416 and had a longer half-life in rats. Cabozantinib subcutaneous plus hypoxia did not induce severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. Right ventricular systolic pressure at 14 and 28 days post-hypoxia was 36.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and 36.2 ± 3.4 mmHg, respectively, versus 27.5 ± 1.5 mmHg in normal controls. For cabozantinib given by osmotic pump during hypoxia, right ventricular systolic pressure was 40.0 ± 3.1 mmHg at 14 days and 27.9 ± 1.9 mmHg at 28 days post-hypoxia. SU5416 plus hypoxia induced severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (right ventricular systolic pressure 61.9 ± 6.1 mmHg and 64.9 ± 8.4 mmHg at 14 and 28 days post-hypoxia, respectively). Cabozantinib induced less right ventricular hypertrophy (right ventricular free wall weight/(left ventricular free wall weight + interventricular septum weight) at 14 days post-hypoxia compared to SU5416. Right ventricular fibrosis was more extensive in the SU5416 groups compared to the cabozantinib groups. SU5416 (but not cabozantinib) inhibited BMPR2. Nanostring analyses showed effects on pulmonary gene expression of BMP10 and VEGFR1 in the SU5416 28 days post-hypoxia group. In conclusion, selective VEGFR2 inhibition using cabozantinib plus hypoxia did not induce severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severe pulmonary arterial hypertension due to SU5416 plus hypoxia may be due to combined VEGFR2 and BMPR2 inhibition.

Niacin Attenuates Pulmonary Hypertension Through H-PGDS in Macrophages

Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by progressive pulmonary vascular remodeling, accompanied by varying degrees of perivascular inflammation. Niacin, a commonly used lipid-lowering drug, possesses vasodilating and proresolution effects by promoting the release of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). However, whether or not niacin confers protection against PAH pathogenesis is still unknown.
Objective: This study aimed to determine whether or not niacin attenuates the development of PAH and, if so, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects.
Methods and results: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor SU5416 and hypoxic exposure were used to induce pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rodents. We found that niacin attenuated the development of this hypoxia/SU5416-induced PH in mice and suppressed progression of monocrotaline-induced and hypoxia/SU5416-induced PH in rats through the reduction of pulmonary artery remodeling. Niacin boosted PGD2 generation in lung tissue, mainly through H-PGDS (hematopoietic PGD2 synthases). Deletion of H-PGDS, but not lipocalin-type PGDS, exacerbated the hypoxia/SU5416-induced PH in mice and abolished the protective effects of niacin against PAH. Moreover, H-PGDS was expressed dominantly in infiltrated macrophages in lungs of PH mice and patients with idiopathic PAH. Macrophage-specific deletion of H-PGDS markedly decreased PGD2 generation in lungs, aggravated hypoxia/SU5416-induced PH in mice, and attenuated the therapeutic effect of niacin on PAH.
Conclusions: Niacin treatment ameliorates the progression of PAH through the suppression of vascular remodeling by stimulating H-PGDS-derived PGD2 release from macrophages.

Periostin: A Potential Therapeutic Target For Pulmonary Hypertension?

Rationale: POSTN (Periostin) is an ECM (extracellular matrix) protein involved in tissue remodeling in response to injury and a contributing factor in tumorigenesis, suggesting that POSTN plays a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH).
Objective: We aimed to gain insight into the mechanistic contribution of POSTN in experimental mouse models of PH and correlate these findings with PH in humans.
Methods and results: We used genetic epistasis approaches in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (hPAECs), human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, and experimental mouse models of PH (Sugen 5416/hypoxia or chronic hypoxia) to discern the role of POSTN and its relationship to HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)-1α signaling. We found that POSTN expression was correlated with the extent of PH in mouse models and in humans. Decreasing POSTN improved hemodynamic and cardiac responses in PH mice, blunted the release of growth factors and HIF-1α, and reversed the downregulated BMPR (bone morphogenetic protein receptor)-2 expression in hPAECs from patients with PH, whereas increasing POSTIN had the opposite effects and induced a hyperproliferative and promigratory phenotype in both hPAECs and human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Overexpression of POSTN-induced activation of HIFs and increased the production of ET (endothelin)-1 and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) in hPAECs. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of HIF-1α abolished the proangiogenic effect of POSTN. Blockade of TrkB (tyrosine kinase receptor B) attenuated the effect of POSTN on HIF-1α expression, while inhibition of HIF-1α reduced the expression of POSTN and TrkB. These results suggest that hPAECs produce POSTN via a HIF-1α-dependent mechanism.
Conclusions: Our study reveals that POSTN expression is increased in human and animal models of PH and fosters PH development via a positive feedback loop between HIF-1α and POSTN during hypoxia. We propose that manipulating POSTIN expression may be an efficacious therapeutic target in the treatment of PH. Our results also suggest that POSTN may serve as a biomarker to estimate the severity of PH.

Endothelial upregulation of mechanosensitive channel Piezo1 in pulmonary hypertension

Piezo is a mechanosensitive cation channel responsible for stretch-mediated Ca2+ and Na+ influx in multiple types of cells. Little is known about the functional role of Piezo1 in the lung vasculature and its potential pathogenic role in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) are constantly under mechanic stretch and shear stress that are sufficient to activate Piezo channels. Here, we report that Piezo1 is significantly upregulated in PAECs from patients with idiopathic PAH and animals with experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) compared with normal controls. Membrane stretch by decreasing extracellular osmotic pressure or by cyclic stretch (18% CS) increases Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation (p) of AKT and ERK, and subsequently upregulates expression of Notch ligands, Jagged1/2 (Jag-1 and Jag-2), and Delta like-4 (DLL4) in PAECs. siRNA-mediated downregulation of Piezo1 significantly inhibited the stretch-mediated pAKT increase and Jag-1 upregulation, whereas downregulation of AKT by siRNA markedly attenuated the stretch-mediated Jag-1 upregulation in human PAECs. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression level of Piezo1 in the isolated pulmonary artery, which mainly contains pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), from animals with severe PH was also significantly higher than that from control animals. Intraperitoneal injection of a Piezo1 channel blocker, GsMTx4, ameliorated experimental PH in mice. Taken together, our study suggests that membrane stretch-mediated Ca2+ influx through Piezo1 is an important trigger for pAKT-mediated upregulation of Jag-1 in PAECs. Upregulation of the mechanosensitive channel Piezo1 and the resultant increase in the Notch ligands (Jag-1/2 and DLL4) in PAECs may play a critical pathogenic role in the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH and PH.