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PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) amide

(Synonyms: 蛋白酶A抑制剂6-22酰胺,Thr-Tyr-Ala-Asp-Phe-Ile-Ala-Ser-Gly-Arg-Thr-Gly-Arg-Arg-Asn-Ala-Ile ) 目录号 : GP10075

A synthetic peptide inhibitor of PKA

PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) amide Chemical Structure

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Sample solution is provided at 25 µL, 10mM.


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Ki: 1.6 nM

PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) amide is a PKA inhibitor.

In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKA) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP). PKA is also regarded as a cAMP-dependent protein kinase. PKA has various functions in the cell, such as regulation of sugar, glycogen, and lipid metabolism.

In vitro: Compared with (Ala)Kemptide, PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) amide was found to have significant difference in inhibitory potency, likely due to the critical role of several of the nonarginine residues to this difference in potency. The minimal length analog of PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) that inhibited CAMP-dependent protein kinase with high potency was the 17-residue PKI-(6-22)-amide. PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) interacted at the peptide/protein binding portion of the active site in a competitive manner with a low nanomolar Ki value. To inhibit CAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) required both the pseudosubstrate site (residues 14-22) and additional NH2-terminal determinants within residues 6-13. PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) could clear mimic protein and peptide substrates in interacting with the binding region of the active site particularly in the COOH-terminal pseudosubstrate basic domain. Undoubtedly, the overall affinity of PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) was due to the number of hydrogen bonds as well as other bonding interactions with the active site of the CAMP-dependent protein kinase [1, 2].

[1] Glass et al (1989) Primary structural determinants essential for potent inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase by inhibitory peptides corresponding to the active portion of the heat-stable inhibitor protein.  J.Biol.Chem. 264 8802. PMID: 2722799.
[2] Glass et al (1989) Protein kinase inhibitor-(6-22)-amide peptide analogs with standard and nonstandard amino acid substitutions for phenylalanine 10.  J.Biol.Chem. 264 14579. PMID: 2760075.

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 121932-06-7 SDF
别名 蛋白酶A抑制剂6-22酰胺,Thr-Tyr-Ala-Asp-Phe-Ile-Ala-Ser-Gly-Arg-Thr-Gly-Arg-Arg-Asn-Ala-Ile
分子式 C80H130N28O24 分子量 1868.08
溶解度 ≥ 186.8mg/mL in DMSO 储存条件 Desiccate at -20°C
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.
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All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request


1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 0.5353 mL 2.6765 mL 5.3531 mL
5 mM 0.1071 mL 0.5353 mL 1.0706 mL
10 mM 0.0535 mL 0.2677 mL 0.5353 mL
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给药剂量 mg/kg 动物平均体重 g 每只动物给药体积 ul 动物数量
% DMSO % % Tween 80 % saline

Research Update

Cav1.2 channel current block by the PKA inhibitor H-89 in rat tail artery myocytes via a PKA-independent mechanism: Electrophysiological, functional, and molecular docking studies

To characterize the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in regulating vascular Ca2+ current through Cav1.2 channels [ICa1.2], we have documented a marked capacity of the isoquinoline H-89, widely used as a PKA inhibitor, to reduce current amplitude. We hypothesized that the ICa1.2 inhibitory activity of H-89 was mediated by mechanisms unrelated to PKA inhibition. To support this, an in-depth analysis of H-89 vascular effects on both ICa1.2 and contractility was undertaken by performing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and functional experiments in rat tail main artery single myocytes and rings, respectively. H-89 inhibited ICa1.2 with a pIC50 (M) value of about 5.5, even under conditions where PKA activity was either abolished by both the PKA antagonists KT5720 and protein kinase inhibitor fragment 6-22 amide or enhanced by the PKA stimulators 6-Bnz-cAMP and 8-Br-cAMP. Inhibition of ICa1.2 by H-89 appeared almost irreversible upon washout, was charge carrier- and voltage-dependent, and antagonised by the Cav1.2 channel agonist (S)-(-)-Bay K 8644. H-89 did not alter both potency and efficacy of verapamil, did not affect current kinetics or voltage-dependent activation, while shifting to the left the 50% voltage of inactivation in a concentration-dependent manner. H-89 docked at the α1C subunit in a pocket region close to that of (S)-(-)-Bay K 8644 docking, forming a hydrogen bond with the same, key amino acid residue Tyr-1489. Finally, both high K+- and (S)-(-)-Bay K 8644-induced contractions of rings were fully reverted by H-89. In conclusion, these results indicate that H-89 inhibited vascular ICa1.2 and, consequently, the contractile function through a PKA-independent mechanism. Therefore, caution is recommended when interpreting experiments where H-89 is used to inhibit vascular smooth muscle PKA.

Prolonged inhibition of protein kinase A results in metalloproteinase-dependent platelet GPIbalpha shedding

Introduction: The interaction of platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ibalpha with von Willebrand factor (VWF) exposed at the injured vessel wall initiates platelet adhesion and thrombus formation. Thus GPIbalpha ectodomain shedding has important implications for thrombosis and hemostasis. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) was identified recently to play an essential role in agonist induced GPIbalpha shedding. Here we show that prolonged inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) results in metalloproteinase-dependent GPIbalpha shedding.
Methods and results: GPIbalpha was shed from platelets prolongedly incubated with PKA inhibitors in a dose-dependent manner. In platelets treated with PKA inhibitor H89, the level of GPIbalpha shedding was significantly higher than that in calcium ionophore or alpha-thrombin treated platelets, however, P-selectin surface expression was significantly lower. PKA inhibition mediated GPIbalpha shedding was reversed by PKA activator forskolin and partially inhibited by membrane-permeable calpain inhibitors. Furthermore, the metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 or EDTA completely inhibited H89 induced GPIbalpha shedding, indicating that it was metalloproteinase-dependent. Time course experiments revealed that the maximum GPIbalpha shedding occurred at 30 minutes after treatment with PKA inhibitor. Platelets prolongedly treated with PKA inhibitor exhibited significant decrease in botrocetin-induced aggregation and shear-induced adhesion on VWF.
Conclusions: These data show that prolonged inhibition of PKA results in metalloproteinase-dependent platelet GPIbalpha ectodomain shedding. This finding has physiological implications for hemostasis and limiting thrombus infinite formation after platelet activation, and it also suggests a novel strategy to develop new drugs for thrombotic diseases.

Adenosine modulates hypoxia-induced responses in rat PC12 cells via the A2A receptor

1. The present study was undertaken to determine the role of adenosine in mediating the cellular responses to hypoxia in rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells, an oxygen-sensitive clonal cell line. 2. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction studies revealed that PC12 cells express adenosine deaminase (the first catalysing enzyme of adenosine degradation) and the A2A and A2B adenosine receptors, but not the A1 or A3 adenosine receptors. 3. Whole-cell current- and voltage-clamp experiments showed that adenosine attenuated the hypoxia-induced membrane depolarization. The hypoxia-induced suppression of the voltage-sensitive potassium current (IK(V)) was markedly reduced by adenosine. Furthermore, extracellularly applied adenosine increased the peak amplitudes of IK(V) in a concentration-dependent manner. This increase was blocked by pretreatment not only with a non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT), but also with a selective A2A receptor antagonist, ZM241385. 4. Ca2+ imaging studies using fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester (fura-2 AM) revealed that the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ during hypoxic exposure was attenuated significantly by adenosine. Voltage-clamp studies showed that adenosine inhibited the voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents (ICa) in a concentration-dependent fashion. This inhibition was also abolished by both 8-PT and ZM241385. 5. The modulation of both IK(V) and ICa by adenosine was prevented by intracellular application of an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) amide. In addition, the effect of adenosine on either IK(V) or ICa was absent in PKA-deficient PC12 cells. 6. These results indicate that the modulatory effects of adenosine on the hypoxia-induced membrane responses of PC12 cells are likely to be mediated via activation of the A2A receptor, and that the PKA pathway is required for these modulatory actions. We propose that this modulation serves to regulate membrane excitability in PC12 cells and possibly other oxygen-sensitive cells during hypoxia.

Inhibition of the cAMP pathway decreases early long-term potentiation at CA1 hippocampal synapses

Long-term potentiation (LTP) has several different phases, and there is general agreement that the late phase of LTP requires the activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In contrast, several studies indicate that the early LTP is not affected by interfering with the cAMP pathway. We have further tested the role of the cAMP pathway in early LTP using several types of inhibitors. Bath application of the PKA inhibitor H89 suppressed the early LTP induced by a single tetanus. Similarly, the LTP induced by a pairing protocol was decreased by postsynaptic intracellular perfusion of the peptide PKA inhibitor PKI(6-22) amide. The decrease of LTP produced by these inhibitors was evident immediately after induction. These results indicate that PKA is important in early LTP, that its locus of action is postsynaptic, and that it does not act merely by enhancing the depolarization required for LTP induction. The failure of some other inhibitors of the cAMP pathway to affect the early phase of LTP might be attributable to the saturation of some step in the cAMP pathway during a tetanus. In agreement with this hypothesis we found that application of the AC inhibitor SQ 22536 by itself did not affect the early phase of LTP, but did produce a reduction if the cAMP pathway was already attenuated by the PKA inhibitor H89. Our analysis of the results of genetic modifications of the cAMP pathway, especially the work on AC knock-outs, indicates that the genetic data are generally consistent with the pharmacological results showing the importance of this pathway in early LTP.

Differential modulation of evoked and spontaneous glycine release from rat spinal cord glycinergic terminals by the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A transduction cascade

The mechanisms underlying cyclic AMP modulation of action potential-dependent and -independent (spontaneous) release of glycine from terminals synapsing onto sacral dorsal commissural nucleus neurons of lamina X were studied in spinal cord slices using conventional patch-clamp recordings. 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and forskolin increased the amplitude of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs) in a sensitive manner to protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition (with KT-5720). Direct activation (with adenosine 3',5'-cyclic-monophosphothioate, Sp-isomer) and inhibition (with adenosine 3',5'-cyclic-monophosphothioate, Rp-isomer) of PKA increased and decreased the eIPSC amplitude, respectively. Paired pulse experiments and direct injection of PKA inhibitor fragment 6-22 amide (PKI(6-22)) into the recording neuron revealed that these effects on eIPSC amplitude occurred presynaptically, indicating that evoked glycine release is regulated by presynaptic cAMP via changes in PKA activity. Increasing cAMP also increased spontaneous release of glycine, causing an increased frequency of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs). In contrast to the effects on evoked release, this response was not solely mediated via PKA, as it was not occluded by PKA inhibition, and both direct inhibition and direct activation of PKA actually enhanced mIPSC frequency. Direct inhibition of cAMP (with SQ 22536) did, however, reduce mIPSC frequency. These results suggest cAMP modulation of evoked and spontaneous release involves different presynaptic mechanisms and proteins.