Home>>Signaling Pathways>> Ubiquitination/ Proteasome>> Autophagy>>CHIR-99021 (CT99021)
CHIR-99021 (CT99021) 目录号 GC16702

GSK-3 inhibitor, Cell-permeable, ATP-competitive

规格 价格 库存 购买数量
10mM (in 1mL DMSO)

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Sample solution is provided at 25 µL, 10mM.


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Cell experiment: [1]

Cell lines

Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs)

Preparation method

The solubility of this compound in DMSO is >10 mM. General tips for obtaining a higher concentration: Please warm the tube at 37 °C for 10 minutes and/or shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.Stock solution can be stored below -20°C for several months.

Reaction Conditions

8 μM, 24 hours


On day 0, differentiation was initiated with 8 μM CHIR-99021 for 24 h conferring canonical Wnt/β-catenin activation, followed by Wnt inhibition on day 3 by addition of 4 μM IWR-1 for 48 h. For all groups tested, first signs of eGFP-fluorescence and first beating EBs were observed on day 6 with a constant increase until d10, reaching almost 100% of beating EBs for the groups seeded with 666-2000 cells per aggregate. Flowcytometry analysis of dissociated EBs on day 10 showed the highest yield of 5.9 Nkx2-5-eGFP+ cells for the group seeded with 666 cells/aggregate; higher cell numbers per aggregate resulted in lower yields. Immunofluorescence stainings of EB cryosections and dissociated/reseeded cells confirmed a high content of Nkx2-5+ and cTnT+ cardiomyocytes, thereby demonstrating efficient cardiomyogenic differentiation of human ESC-derived EBs after aggregation on agarose microwells and induction with small molecule-based media.

Animal experiment: [2]

Animal models

Akita type 1 diabetic mice and wild-type mice

Dosage form

Intraperitoneal injection, 50 mg/kg, daily


At 15 min after the propranolol injection, the 2-min average HF fraction increased from 46.8 ± 2.9% before CHIR-99021 treatment to 67.8 ± 5.1% after CHIR-99021 treatment. Treatment of Akita mice with CHIR-99021 increased SREBP-1 from 0.53 ± 0.07- to 1.17 ± 0.11- fold. CHIR-99021 treatment increased GIRK4 levels from 0.28 ± 0.06- to 1.08 ± 0.14- fold of those in WT mice, which was significantly higher than in placebo.

Other notes

Please test the solubility of all compounds indoor, and the actual solubility may slightly differ with the theoretical value. This is caused by an experimental system error and it is normal.


[1] Dahlmann J, Kensah G, Kempf H, et al. The use of agarose microwells for scalable embryoid body formation and cardiac differentiation of human and murine pluripotent stem cells. Biomaterials, 2013, 34(10): 2463-2471.

[2] Zhang Y, Welzig C M, Picard K L, et al. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition ameliorates cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction in type 1 diabetic Akita mice. Diabetes, 2014, 63(6): 2097-2113.

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 252917-06-9 SDF
别名 CHIR99021, CHIR-99021, CHIR 99021, CT99021,GSK-3 Inhibitor XVI
化学名 6-((2-((4-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)ethyl)amino)nicotinonitrile
Canonical SMILES N#CC1=CC=C(NCCNC2=NC=C(C3=NC=C(C)N3)C(C4=CC=C(Cl)C=C4Cl)=N2)N=C1
分子式 C22H18Cl2N8 分子量 465.34
溶解度 ≥ 23.3mg/mL in DMSO 储存条件 Store at 4°C
General tips For obtaining a higher solubility , please warm the tube at 37 ℃ and shake it in the ultrasonic bath for a while.
Shipping Condition Evaluation sample solution : ship with blue ice
All other available size: ship with RT , or blue ice upon request
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CHIR-99021 is a highly specific glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor which can inhibit both isoforms with IC50 of 10 nM (GSK-3α) and 6.7 nM (GSK-3β).

CHIR-99021 was proved to promote self-renewal and maintain pluripotency of both B6 and BALB/c ES cells via stabilizing the downstream effectors like c-Myc and β -catenin[1]. In J1 mESC cells, CHIR-99021 played an important role in maintaining the colony morphology as well as the self-renewal when combined with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). CHIR-99021 has shown to regulate multiple signaling pathways which involve Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β, Nodal and MAPK, and the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes like Dnmt3l[2].

CHIR-99021 has been demonstrated to promote DN3 thymocytes proliferation and differentiation in the absence of pre-TCR signaling, Notch1 signaling or CXCL12[3]. However, study has also found that higher concentration (10 ?M but not 1 ?M or 3 ?M) of CHIR99021 might selectively inhibit differentiation by activating IL-7 signaling pathway[3].

1. Ye S1, Tan L, Yang R, Fang B, Qu S, Schulze EN, Song H, Ying Q, Li P. Pleiotropy of glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition by CHIR99021 promotes self-renewal of embryonic stem cells from refractory mouse strains. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35892.
2. Wu Y1, Ai Z, Yao K, Cao L, Du J, Shi X, Guo Z, Zhang Y. CHIR99021 promotes self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells by modulation of protein-encoding gene and long intergenic non-coding RNA expression. Exp Cell Res. 2013
3. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58501. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058501. Epub 2013 Mar 20. Schroeder JH1, Bell LS, Janas ML, Turner M. Pharmacological inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 regulates T cell development in vitro. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58501.