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Semaglutide Sale

(Synonyms: 索马鲁肽) 目录号 : GC31404

A GLP-1R agonist

Semaglutide Chemical Structure

Cas No.:910463-68-2

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实验参考方法

Animal experiment:

Mice[2]Male C57BL/6 mice 10 weeks old (20-25 g) are used throughout the study. Mice are randomized divided into six groups (n=12 per group) (i) control group treated with saline alone; (ii) liraglutide group treated with saline and liraglutide (25 nmol/kg ip. once daily for 7 days); (iii) Semaglutide group treated with saline and Semaglutide (25 nmol/kg ip. once daily for 7 days), (iv) MPTP group treated with MPTP alone (once daily 20 mg/kg ip. for 7 days); (v) MPTP (once daily 20 mg/kg ip. for 7 days) followed immediately by liraglutide treated group (25 nmol/kg ip. once daily for 7 days). (vi) MPTP (20 mg/kg ip. once daily for 7 days) followed immediately by Semaglutide treated group (25 nmol/kg ip. Once daily for 7 days). At the end of drug treatments, measure the behavioral changes, neuronal damage, inflammatory markers, and other biomarkers[2].

References:

[1]. Marso SP, et al. Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2016 Nov 10;375(19):1834-1844.
[2]. Zhang L, et al. Neuroprotective effects of the novel GLP-1 long acting analogue semaglutide in the MPTP Parkinson's disease mouse model. Neuropeptides. 2018 Oct;71:70-80.
[3]. Dhillon S, et al. Semaglutide: First Global Approval. Drugs. 2018 Feb;78(2):275-284.

产品描述

Semaglutide is an agonist of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R; EC50 = 6.2 pM in a reporter assay using BHK cells expressing the human receptor).1 It decreases blood glucose levels in the db/db mouse model of type 2 diabetes (ED50 = <2 nmol/kg). Semaglutide (25 nmol/kg) prevents decreases in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and increases in lipid peroxidation in the substantia nigra and striatum, as well as improves motor coordination in the rotarod and footprint tests in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP.2 It decreases neuronal loss in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and CA1 and CA3 regions and improves motor coordination and grip strength in the beam-walking and hanging wire tests, respectively, in a rat model of stroke induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) when administered at a dose of 10 nmol/kg every other day.3 Formulations containing semaglutide have been used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

1.Lau, J., Bloch, P., Sch?ffer, L., et al.Discovery of the once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue semaglutideJ. Med. Chem.58(18)7370-7380(2015) 2.Zhang, L., Zhang, L., Li, L., et al.Neuroprotective effects of the novel GLP-1 long acting analogue semaglutide in the MPTP Parkinson's disease mouse modelNeuropeptides7170-80(2018) 3.Yang, X., Feng, P., Zhang, X., et al.The diabetes drug semaglutide reduces infarct size, inflammation, and apoptosis, and normalizes neurogenesis in a rat model of strokeNeuropharmacology158107748(2019)

Chemical Properties

Cas No. 910463-68-2 SDF
别名 索马鲁肽
Canonical SMILES [Semaglutide]
分子式 分子量 4113.58
溶解度 DMSO:3mg/mL (0.73 mM) 储存条件 Store at -20°C
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1 mM 0.2431 mL 1.2155 mL 2.431 mL
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4113.58
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Research Update

Once-Weekly Semaglutide in Adults with Overweight or Obesity

Background: Obesity is a global health challenge with few pharmacologic options. Whether adults with obesity can achieve weight loss with once-weekly semaglutide at a dose of 2.4 mg as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention has not been confirmed. Methods: In this double-blind trial, we enrolled 1961 adults with a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 30 or greater (≥27 in persons with ≥1 weight-related coexisting condition), who did not have diabetes, and randomly assigned them, in a 2:1 ratio, to 68 weeks of treatment with once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide (at a dose of 2.4 mg) or placebo, plus lifestyle intervention. The coprimary end points were the percentage change in body weight and weight reduction of at least 5%. The primary estimand (a precise description of the treatment effect reflecting the objective of the clinical trial) assessed effects regardless of treatment discontinuation or rescue interventions. Results: The mean change in body weight from baseline to week 68 was -14.9% in the semaglutide group as compared with -2.4% with placebo, for an estimated treatment difference of -12.4 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -13.4 to -11.5; P<0.001). More participants in the semaglutide group than in the placebo group achieved weight reductions of 5% or more (1047 participants [86.4%] vs. 182 [31.5%]), 10% or more (838 [69.1%] vs. 69 [12.0%]), and 15% or more (612 [50.5%] vs. 28 [4.9%]) at week 68 (P<0.001 for all three comparisons of odds). The change in body weight from baseline to week 68 was -15.3 kg in the semaglutide group as compared with -2.6 kg in the placebo group (estimated treatment difference, -12.7 kg; 95% CI, -13.7 to -11.7). Participants who received semaglutide had a greater improvement with respect to cardiometabolic risk factors and a greater increase in participant-reported physical functioning from baseline than those who received placebo. Nausea and diarrhea were the most common adverse events with semaglutide; they were typically transient and mild-to-moderate in severity and subsided with time. More participants in the semaglutide group than in the placebo group discontinued treatment owing to gastrointestinal events (59 [4.5%] vs. 5 [0.8%]). Conclusions: In participants with overweight or obesity, 2.4 mg of semaglutide once weekly plus lifestyle intervention was associated with sustained, clinically relevant reduction in body weight. (Funded by Novo Nordisk; STEP 1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03548935).

The Discovery and Development of Liraglutide and Semaglutide

The discovery of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone with important effects on glycemic control and body weight regulation, led to efforts to extend its half-life and make it therapeutically effective in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The development of short- and then long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) followed. Our article charts the discovery and development of the long-acting GLP-1 analogs liraglutide and, subsequently, semaglutide. We examine the chemistry employed in designing liraglutide and semaglutide, the human and non-human studies used to investigate their cellular targets and pharmacological effects, and ongoing investigations into new applications and formulations of these drugs. Reversible binding to albumin was used for the systemic protraction of liraglutide and semaglutide, with optimal fatty acid and linker combinations identified to maximize albumin binding while maintaining GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) potency. GLP-1RAs mediate their effects via this receptor, which is expressed in the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, heart, lungs, kidneys, and brain. GLP-1Rs in the pancreas and brain have been shown to account for the respective improvements in glycemic control and body weight that are evident with liraglutide and semaglutide. Both liraglutide and semaglutide also positively affect cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in individuals with T2D, although the precise mechanism is still being explored. Significant weight loss, through an effect to reduce energy intake, led to the approval of liraglutide (3.0 mg) for the treatment of obesity, an indication currently under investigation with semaglutide. Other ongoing investigations with semaglutide include the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NASH) and its use in an oral formulation for the treatment of T2D. In summary, rational design has led to the development of two long-acting GLP-1 analogs, liraglutide and semaglutide, that have made a vast contribution to the management of T2D in terms of improvements in glycemic control, body weight, blood pressure, lipids, beta-cell function, and CV outcomes. Furthermore, the development of an oral formulation for semaglutide may provide individuals with additional benefits in relation to treatment adherence. In addition to T2D, liraglutide is used in the treatment of obesity, while semaglutide is currently under investigation for use in obesity and NASH.

Once-Weekly Semaglutide in Adolescents with Obesity

Background: A once-weekly, 2.4-mg dose of subcutaneous semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, is used to treat obesity in adults, but assessment of the drug in adolescents has been lacking.
Methods: In this double-blind, parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled adolescents (12 to <18 years of age) with obesity (a body-mass index [BMI] in the 95th percentile or higher) or with overweight (a BMI in the 85th percentile or higher) and at least one weight-related coexisting condition. Participants were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide (at a dose of 2.4 mg) or placebo for 68 weeks, plus lifestyle intervention. The primary end point was the percentage change in BMI from baseline to week 68; the secondary confirmatory end point was weight loss of at least 5% at week 68.
Results: A total of 201 participants underwent randomization, and 180 (90%) completed treatment. All but one of the participants had obesity. The mean change in BMI from baseline to week 68 was -16.1% with semaglutide and 0.6% with placebo (estimated difference, -16.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -20.3 to -13.2; P<0.001). At week 68, a total of 95 of 131 participants (73%) in the semaglutide group had weight loss of 5% or more, as compared with 11 of 62 participants (18%) in the placebo group (estimated odds ratio, 14.0; 95% CI, 6.3 to 31.0; P<0.001). Reductions in body weight and improvement with respect to cardiometabolic risk factors (waist circumference and levels of glycated hemoglobin, lipids [except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol], and alanine aminotransferase) were greater with semaglutide than with placebo. The incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events was greater with semaglutide than with placebo (62% vs. 42%). Five participants (4%) in the semaglutide group and no participants in the placebo group had cholelithiasis. Serious adverse events were reported in 15 of 133 participants (11%) in the semaglutide group and in 6 of 67 participants (9%) in the placebo group.
Conclusions: Among adolescents with obesity, once-weekly treatment with a 2.4-mg dose of semaglutide plus lifestyle intervention resulted in a greater reduction in BMI than lifestyle intervention alone. (Funded by Novo Nordisk; STEP TEENS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04102189.).

Safety of Semaglutide

The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) semaglutide is the most recently approved agent of this drug class, and the only GLP-1RA currently available as both subcutaneous and oral formulation. While GLP-1RAs effectively improve glycemic control and cause weight loss, potential safety concerns have arisen over the years. For semaglutide, such concerns have been addressed in the extensive phase 3 registration trials including cardiovascular outcome trials for both subcutaneous (SUSTAIN: Semaglutide Unabated Sustainability in Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes) and oral (PIONEER: Peptide InnOvatioN for the Early diabEtes tReatment) semaglutide and are being studied in further trials and registries, including real world data studies. In the current review we discuss the occurrence of adverse events associated with semaglutide focusing on hypoglycemia, gastrointestinal side effects, pancreatic safety (pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer), thyroid cancer, gallbladder events, cardiovascular aspects, acute kidney injury, diabetic retinopathy (DRP) complications and injection-site and allergic reactions and where available, we highlight potential underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, we discuss whether effects are specific for semaglutide or a class effect. We conclude that semaglutide induces mostly mild-to-moderate and transient gastrointestinal disturbances and increases the risk of biliary disease (cholelithiasis). No unexpected safety issues have arisen to date, and the established safety profile for semaglutide is similar to that of other GLP-1RAs where definitive conclusions for pancreatic and thyroid cancer cannot be drawn at this point due to low incidence of these conditions. Due to its potent glucose-lowering effect, patients at risk for deterioration of existing DRP should be carefully monitored if treated with semaglutide, particularly if also treated with insulin. Given the beneficial metabolic and cardiovascular actions of semaglutide, and the low risk for severe adverse events, semaglutide has an overall favorable risk/benefit profile for patient with type 2 diabetes.

Semaglutide as a promising antiobesity drug

Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) with a long elimination half-life, allowing subcutaneous (sc) administration once per week. Both the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved once-weekly sc semaglutide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The weight loss efficacy of once-weekly sc semaglutide appears to be superior compared with the other once-weekly GLP-1 RAs in patients with T2DM. Semaglutide was recently evaluated as an antiobesity drug in a phase II dose-finding trial, which demonstrated superior weight loss efficacy of once daily sc semaglutide compared with both placebo and once daily 3.0 mg liraglutide in patients with obesity but without T2DM. The magnitude of semaglutide-induced weight loss in this study exceeded the criteria of both the EMA and FDA for antiobesity drugs, and there were no safety concerns, indicating the eligibility of once daily sc semaglutide as a future antiobesity drug.